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Mechanical Definitions

Spillway : It is a structure used to provide an efficient, safe means of releasing flow water that exceeds the design capacity of the reservoir. It is a necessary part of large dam.

Standpipe : To alleviate the transient pressure in large pipe line systems the standpipe is used. During the turbine shut off it works as a pressure relief valve for the upstream pipe.

Steam : It is water vapor and is invisible when it is pure and dry. It is used as a working substance in the operation of steam engines and steam turbine. A mixture of steam and water particles is called Wet Steam. When all water particles are evaporated, it is called Dry and Saturated Steam.

Steam Condenser : It is a closed vessel wherein the steam is exhausted and condensed after doing work in an engine cylinder or turbine.

Steam Engine : It uses steam as the working fluid. It operates on the principle of first law of thermodynamics. In steam engine heat of steam is converted into work by a piston reciprocating in a cylinder. The mechanical work produced is made available at the fly wheel of the engine.

Steam Nozzle : It is a passage of varying cross-section which converts heat energy of steam into kinetic energy.

Steam Turbine : It is a prime-mover wherein rotary motion is obtained by the gradual change of momentum of the steam.

Strength of Materials

Surge Tank : It is an artificial reservoir having free water surface which is installed as close to the power house as it is economically feasible to reflect back the water hammer waves arising out of sudden change in demand.