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Energy Conversion Back

Solar energy : The primary source of energy is Sun. Solar cells convert solar energy directly into electrical energy. It is the utilization of the radiant energy from the Sun.

Wind energy : Whenever wind flows at considerable velocity for most of the time, the energy can be produced using windmills. Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into electricity.

Wave power : Waves in ocean possess potential as well as kinetic energy. The quantity of energy available depends on the wave shape i.e., the amplitude and pitch of waves. The wave 3 meter amplitude and about 30 meter pitch can produce about 100 kW per meter of wave front.

Tidal power : The rise and fall of tides offers a means for storing water at the rise and discharging the same at fall. Thereby generating power during rise as well as fall. A tidal power plant is under planning at the bay of company. Also called Tidal Energy.

Geothermal energy : According to modern theory the crest of earth is in molten condition. This theory is further supported by the volcanic action that often takes place on the surface of the earth. Magma, responsible for the volcanic action, also forms hot spring. Steam can be tapped from drilled wells, several thousands of meters deep and can be used for power generation.

Fuel cells : The conversion of chemical energy of a fuel to electrical energy without passing through the heat stage removes the Carnot efficiency limitations, so that the theoretical efficiencies approaching 100 percent are attainable. It produces electricity from fuel and oxidant that reacts in the presence of an electrolyte. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained.

Hydrogen Oxygen Cell : The cell utilizes two permeable nickel or carbon electrodes, with suitable catalysts (KOH, etc). Hydrogen is fed to one electrode and is absorbed giving free electrons (H2 - 2H+ + 2E) and also reacts with hydroxyl ions of the electrolyte to form water (H2 + 2OH -> 2H2O). Oxygen is fed to the other electrode where it is reduced to form the hydroxyl ions which migrate to the hydrogen electrode
(O + H2O + 2e -> 2OH)
A current density of 1 A/cm2 of electrode area is obtainable.

Thermo Electric Power : It is the conversion of temperature differences directly into electricity. When two dissimilar materials are joined to form a loop and the two junctions maintained at different temperatures, an emf will be set up in the loop. This is Also called as Seeback effect. This principle has been commonly used in thermocouples using two dissimilar metals to measure a temperature difference or an absolute temperature. During the last decade, new semiconductor materials have given generators supplying upto 5 kW for luminous and radio navigational beacons and for artificial satellites.

Thermionic Generators : A thermionic converter comprises a heated cathode (electron emitter) and an anode (electron collector) separated by a vacuum, the electrical output circuit being connected between the two. Electrical outputs of about 6 W/cm2 removed by coolant.

Magneto Hydrodynamic Generator : It transforms thermal energy or kinetic energy directly into electricity. According to Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction when a conductor and a magnetic field move with respect to each other, an electron voltage is included in the conductor. The conductor doesn't need to be a solid - it may be a gas or liquid. The magnohydro-dynamic (MHD) generator uses this principle by forcing a high pressure temperature combustion gas, through a strong magnetic field. To raise the conductivity of the gas it is seeded with potassium. Only large size MHD plants (above 500 MW) are economical to operate.