Solar energy : The primary source of energy is Sun. Solar
cells convert solar energy directly into electrical energy.
It is the utilization of the radiant energy from the Sun.
Wind energy : Whenever wind flows at considerable velocity
for most of the time, the energy can be produced using windmills.
Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into electricity.
Wave power : Waves in ocean possess potential as well
as kinetic energy. The quantity of energy available depends
on the wave shape i.e., the amplitude and pitch of waves. The
wave 3 meter amplitude and about 30 meter pitch can produce
about 100 kW per meter of wave front.
Tidal power : The rise and fall of tides offers a means
for storing water at the rise and discharging the same at fall.
Thereby generating power during rise as well as fall. A tidal
power plant is under planning at the bay of company. Also called
Geothermal energy : According to modern theory the crest
of earth is in molten condition. This theory is further supported
by the volcanic action that often takes place on the surface
of the earth. Magma, responsible for the volcanic action, also
forms hot spring. Steam can be tapped from drilled wells, several
thousands of meters deep and can be used for power generation.
Fuel cells : The conversion of chemical energy of a fuel
to electrical energy without passing through the heat stage
removes the Carnot efficiency limitations, so that the theoretical
efficiencies approaching 100 percent are attainable. It produces
electricity from fuel and oxidant that reacts in the presence
of an electrolyte. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously
as long as the necessary flows are maintained.
Hydrogen Oxygen Cell : The cell utilizes two permeable
nickel or carbon electrodes, with suitable catalysts (KOH, etc).
Hydrogen is fed to one electrode and is absorbed giving free
electrons (H2 - 2H+ + 2E) and also reacts
with hydroxyl ions of the electrolyte to form water (H2
+ 2OH -> 2H2O). Oxygen is fed to the other electrode
where it is reduced to form the hydroxyl ions which migrate
to the hydrogen electrode
(O + H2O + 2e -> 2OH)
A current density of 1 A/cm2 of electrode area is
Thermo Electric Power : It is the conversion of temperature
differences directly into electricity. When two dissimilar materials
are joined to form a loop and the two junctions maintained at
different temperatures, an emf will be set up in the loop. This
is Also called as Seeback effect. This principle has been commonly
used in thermocouples using two dissimilar metals to measure
a temperature difference or an absolute temperature. During
the last decade, new semiconductor materials have given generators
supplying upto 5 kW for luminous and radio navigational beacons
and for artificial satellites.
Thermionic Generators : A thermionic converter comprises
a heated cathode (electron emitter) and an anode (electron collector)
separated by a vacuum, the electrical output circuit being connected
between the two. Electrical outputs of about 6 W/cm2
removed by coolant.
Magneto Hydrodynamic Generator : It transforms thermal
energy or kinetic energy directly into electricity. According
to Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction when a conductor
and a magnetic field move with respect to each other, an electron
voltage is included in the conductor. The conductor doesn't
need to be a solid - it may be a gas or liquid. The magnohydro-dynamic
(MHD) generator uses this principle by forcing a high pressure
temperature combustion gas, through a strong magnetic field.
To raise the conductivity of the gas it is seeded with potassium.
Only large size MHD plants (above 500 MW) are economical to